A letter from the grandchildren on Leave Voters

A letter from the future to those claiming to vote leave on behalf of their grandchildren, too young to vote.
Dear Grandad,

I know you claim you meant well when you said you voted to leave on my behalf, as someone unable to vote, but I really wish you hadn’t done so.

All that scaremongering about an EU superstate, EU army, Turkey etc was really hyperbole and you know we have vetoes on those. Anyway, those are issues best left to my generation and if we don’t like the answer we could always choose to leave then. Now we have no way back, at least on the terms we had.

It’s quite charming you are outraged at the EU’s imposition of rules on matters like oven glove safety, vacuum cleaner power and efficiency, and rules on importing ferrets, riding roughshod over our sovereignty and democracy, but I am much more concerned with the legacy your generation left me which is almost exclusively down to governments you elected to Westminster. This clearly demonstrates Westminster lawmaking has far greater practical impact than anything the EU does.

You had free university education, or the opportunity of it. You have now saddled me and my generation with the highest university fees in the EU, and all the debt that entails, whilst now removing my right to university education anywhere in the EU.

You have had final salary pension schemes and lucrative early retirement packages, yet you have raised retirement ages for my generation which are likely to rise further. You have been guaranteed a “triple lock” on your pensions whilst we can expect  zero hours contracts.

You owned your own home on attractive mortgage terms at a young age, yet I’ll be unable to afford a home of my own for a long time. This is made worse by you and your generation spending your retirement lump sum on buy to let properties, increasing prices and making property unavailable to buy.
You bought a holiday home in the EU and some retired there. Yet you now deny me the freedom of movement that made this possible.

You have known for 30 years that your activities were impacting the climate yet you have done eff all about it, many Leave advocates denying the problem exists of course (what do experts know!). You’ve taken full advantage of cheap flights to holiday in exotic places, exacerbating the problem. Yet it will be my generation and those of my children and grandchildren that will suffer the consequences. And now you’ve removed Britain from one organisation where concerted international action and influence was possible, and starting to work.

You knowingly took the risk of the breakup of the U.K. Itself. The country you “wanted back” that you actually got back is the one prior to 1707 that you never ever knew.

I could go on, but I’d just like you to know that no, I’m not thanking you for voting to leave the EU and let’s be honest. You did it for your own self interest, not mine. You’ll need those immigrants to care for you into old age, wiping bodily excretions from you because trust me, I won’t be doing it.

Your concerned grandchild

Total Lunar Eclipse September 28th 2015


Here are some photographs taken during the total lunar eclipse on the morning of 28th September 2015. All photographs were taken from my garden in Chandlers Ford Hampshire.Eclipse-composite

This was the so called “Supermoon” eclipse. All photos taken with a Canon 70D  with Canon’s 100-400m IS (Mk 1)  Zoom lens and 2x extender (800mm efective focal length at f/11). This normally is manual focus but the 70D in Liveview mode manages to auto focus (albeit slowly) whilst the moon was reasonably bright. I had to flick the switch to MF as it got darker as the AF “hunted” and couldn’t focus well. The focus on the 2x extender is quite soft anyway (the 1.4x is said to be much better but I don’t have one).

The Partial phase was mainly at ISO 200 and exposures of 1/200 to 1/50s. The total  phase (and the “red” effect on partial phase) needed exposures of more than 1 second and/or high ISO. I took various shots between 1s and 10s and ISO of 800 to 6400 with the 70D long exposure noise reduction and high ISO noise reduction turned on. The camera was mounted on my Celestron EdgeHD 925 telescope tracking at Lunar rate. Unfortunately vibrations of the mount meant many shots had “judder” and were rejected.

Whilst the media has focused on this being the last “Supermoon” eclipse before 2033, there will be Lunar Eclipses visible in the UK before then. For details of all future eclipse, the best source is NASA.

Start of the Partial Phase

Partial Phase

Partway through the partial phase

Around halfway through the partial phase

Getting near totality

Near totality – the red shadow now visible


Mid eclipse

Total Lunar Eclipse 28 September 2015


On the early morning of 28th September 2015 there will be a total eclipse of the Moon. Details of the eclipse can be found here: http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/LEplot/LEplot2001/LE2015Sep28T.pdf And here: http://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/observing-news/get-ready-for-septembers-total-lunar-eclipse-091420155/ 

Times are in UTC, so add an hour for British Summer Time.

The total phase is between 0311 BST and 0423 BST. The penumbral phase begins at 0111 BST and ends at 0622 BST.

The examples in this post were taken during the March 2007 Total Lunar Eclipse unless stated otherwise using a Canon 300D DSLR and 800mm lens.

Lunar Eclipse March 2007 - Partial Phase

Partial phase: Location Hampshire, UK Taken at ISO200, 1/125s with 800mm lens at f/11 on Canon 300D Taken at 2200 UT

Lunar Eclipse March 2007: Just before totality

Just before totality: 4 seconds at ISO400 f/11, 800mm on Canon 300D Location Hampshire, UK

Lunar eclipses are perfectly safe to view throughout the eclipse and pose no risk to eyesight or equipment (unlike a solar eclipse). They are the result of the moon, earth and sun being aligned such that the moon passes through the earth’s shadow as cast by the sun. What happens is that there is a faintening of the bright full moon as the moon passes through the “penumbra”. This may not be discernible to the naked eye but maybe by camera.

During mid eclipse, as the moon passes through the “umbra” of the shadow, then the moon darkens considerably and observers will see a gradual darkening until the moon is fully in shadow. Photographs at this stage show a reddish arc crossing the moon until the moon is fully reddish in colour.

Lunar Eclipse March 2007: Mid Eclipse

Mid Eclipse: Location Hampshire, UK f/11, 800mm on Canon 300D 20 second exposure at ISO400, Guided

During the relatively long total phase the moon is very dark and reddish in colour, though how dark and how red depends on many factors.

Photographing the eclipse has challenges. A DSLR is the best type of camera to use as it can be directly attached to a telescope or use a telephoto lens. Normally a full moon would need an exposure of about 1/200s at ISO 200 and f/10. You should check your exposures with your camera and lenses (or telescope) against a normal full moon. Lenses with less than about 200mm focal length will not have enough magnification to show much. However, one could experiment with short focal lengths to create a montage of the moon throughout the varying phases of the eclipse.

With a long focal length you can show considerable detail. I have a 100-400mm focal length zoom lens with a 2x extender giving an 800mm focal length system which the above photographs were  taken with (on a Canon 300D) during the March 2007 lunar eclipse.

However, the resulting f/11 configuration requires four times longer exposures than the 400mm f5.6 lens (or a 4x ISO – though that introduces more noise). The moon is considerably darker so exposures of several seconds become necessary which is only possible if the camera can be guided, otherwise movement due to the earth’s rotation blurs the image. Putting the camera onto a “piggy back” mount on a guided telescope or a special guided camera mount (such as sold for about £300 by the likes of iOptron, Skywatcher and Baader).Otherwise you’ll need your camera to be tripod mounted and to increase the ISO to keep exposures below about half a second beyond which the image will blur.

It will be necessary to manually focus the camera and put settings onto manual as the camera will not focus or expose correctly if left on automatic settings. Try focusing on a bright star first using (if your camera has it) via the LCD panel (or “LiveView” on a Canon).

Fortunately during the 70 minutes or so of totality you have plenty of time to experiment with differing camera settings to get the best results. Try shorter exposures at higher ISOs or longer exposures at lower ISO to assess the quality. Various online resources and books (eg Covington’s Astrophotography for the Amateur) provide guidance on exposures etc.

Here are some other examples from the 2008 eclipse (when there was a lot of cloud about):
Lunar Eclipse February 2008

Good Luck and let’s hope for clear skies.

The Milky Way over Durdle Door

A reprocessing to lighten the arch and reduce noise.

Last night I visited Durdle Door in Dorset to capture sunset shots and views of the Milky Way as the sky was predicted to be clear, for the first time in weeks.

I arrived at the Durdle Door campsite carousel around 6pm and walked down to the cliffs above the beach. I took a few photos from the cliff top before walking down to the beach to await sunset.

As the sun went down in the West, a warm glow lit up the arch and also the beach towards the Bat Hole.

Durdle Door arch lit by sunset light.

Durdle Door arch lit by sunset light.

The arch lit by sunset light (processed to remove people)

The arch lit by sunset light (processed to remove people)

Looking towards the Bat Hole as the sun was going down.

Looking towards the Bat Hole as the sun was going down.

I then went back up to the cliffs above the beach to await darkness to capture the Milky Way. I set up so as to take portrait photos with the Milky Way above the arch. Trying various exposures, with a 10mm lens at f3.5, ISO1600 and 30 to 45 seconds produced the best results.

I tried using my flashgun to brighten the arch but with limited success.

The Milky Way above the Arch. a meteor is visible on the left.

The Milky Way above the Arch. a meteor is visible on the left.

With the car park being closed at 1000pm I needed to finish around 930pm (it only became full darkness at 9pm) and finished with a few landscape style shots at ISO 3200. The image was very noisy and attempts in Lightroom were unsuccessful at reducing it.

shot of the arch and milky way. I. ISO 3200 and 30 sec exposure.

shot of the arch and milky way. I. ISO 3200 and 30 sec exposure.

The “Grice Flight” of Spitfires over the Solent


A group of 7 Spitfires of the “Grice Flight” flew over Southsea to the Isle of Wight today to commemorate the “Hardest Day” of the Battle of Britain, 75 Years ago. The Spitfires flew from Biggin Hill airfield in Kent.

We were watching from Southsea beach and the Spitfires flew some way away. The flight was expected at about 120pm and they were just about on time. They headed south to the Isle of Wight and a few minutes later came back.

See http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-33966632 for news on the event.

Here are some photos I took with my Canon 70D and 100-400mm lens. All at ISO 400 and f/8.

Spitfires (1 of 1)

The “Grice Flight” arriving over the Solent

Spitfires (1 of 5)

Cropped view of three spitfires

All the Spitfires in one shot

All the Spitfires in one shot

Over the Isle of Wight

Over the Isle of Wight

Over the Isle of Wight

Over the Isle of Wight

On their way back over the Southsea War memorial

On their way back over the Southsea War memorial

On their way back over the Southsea War memorial

On their way back over the Southsea War memorial

Imaging the International Space Station

The technique for closeups of the International Space Station is to point the telescope at a point the ISS is predicted to pass through. I set the camera on high burst rate (6.5 fps is the fastest on my Canon 40D and my 70D has 7fps) JPEG (not RAW as the buffer fills up too quickly. For short sequences RAW can be fine but make sure to leave plenty of time for the buffer to be written to the CF card before removing the card!) at 1/1000 or 1`/2000 of a second exposure at ISO 1600 or 2000. As the ISS enters the field of view of the finder, then set the burst going and stop when it leaves. There are typically 3 shots with the ISS in the frame when overhead but I got 4 on one pass as I (coincidentally) had the camera oriented diagonally to its path. Quite a bit of the structure such as the various modules, support trusses and solar panels are clearly visible. To find out where it is going to pass through, the approach I use is to use Heavens Above (www.heavens-above.com/) or Calsky (calsky.org/) to find a star the ISS is going very close to and tracking on that (HA has stars to about mag 6, Calsky much fainter). With a GOTO scope I don’t need to use a star but get coordinates from Calsky and go to that coordinate and wait. Clearly focussing and seeing are now the limiting factors in how good an image one can get but if you can focus on the moon, a planet or a bright close double star (eg Castor) to get a sharp focus. A Bhatinov mask is another good way of focusing accurately. With a GOTO scope one problem is aligning it whilst still twilight (which is usually the conditions for an evening pass) even if the pass itself is in the dark. Usually there are not enough bright stars visible in the twilight to accurately align and then ensure the scope is properly polar aligned: there often is not enough time. If you have enough time to get a good alignment, then you can enter the coordinates extracted from Calsky.org to get very close to the passthru point. Without properly polar aligning, there can still be sufficient drift that I had to re-enter the coordinates in the scope a couple of minutes before the pass just so I could be sure the scope would still be pointed at the right area. The types of result one gets are shown below which is a set of exposures merged into a sequence in Photoshop. ISS Closeups A closeup is obtained by cropping the best image obtained as the ISS, even when overhead, results in an image of around 100 pixels size. I use Photoshop Elements to sharpen the image and adjust the highlights. The amount of detail is amazing given how far away it is and the usually bad seeing and atmospheric turbulence. Closeup of the International Space Station This works fine for a DSLR like mine with a 30’x20′ FOV (on my EdgeHD 925 scope). I would like to try with my 640×480 CCD camera but that has such a narrow FOV that I can’t be confident the ISS will actually pass through. I’ll try again when there’s a prediction of a very close pass to a bright enough star AND I have time to actually align very accurately. Some manage to take reasonably long videos using such cameras and then use software to align and stack the images to get a much sharper and detailed picture than a single shot can obtain. For the shots of ISS passes across the Sun. Never observe the sun without the use of approved solar protection filters.For these, aligning isn’t the problem but knowing when it’s coming through when you can’t see it. For these use a GPS for accurate timing and start the burst about 1s before the predicted transit and stop about a second after (the transits are usually over in less than a second, maybe 2 seconds when the sun is low in the sky). Using RAW is possible for a sequence this short (buffer on the 40D and 70D hold about 16 shots so about 2.5s worth at 6.5 fps) but make sure you let the buffer flush before taking the card out! 1/1000s or 1/1250s at ISO 1600 is about right for these shots (with a solar filter on the scope). International Space Station Transiting the Sun When the transit is not visible from my home so I can’t use my telescope I use my 100-400mm lens with a 2x extender, so 800mm focal length and a Thousand Oaks solar filter. The same technique is used: ISS Transit Across the Sun

For the Moon (statistically as frequent as Solar transits but in fact much more difficult given the phases) the same technique as for the Sun but without needing a filter. This sequence was taken at 1/1600 and ISO 3200. In rare cases the ISS may be visible but a bright ISS against a bright Moon will be harder to get the exposure right. This particular shot was published in the June 2015 Sky and Telescope.

Sequence of the ISS Transiting the Moon - Updated Sometimes when planning Sun or Moon transits, Calsky and Heavens-Above don’t always agree and this could mean that you get all set up and the predicted transit doesn’t occur at all or not when you expect it. The usual reason for this is that some orbital change has happened and one or both have not updated correctly. If they agree, then you should be fine. If they disagree then one could start the sequence at the earliest time on one and stop on the latest time on the other. However, if they are 20-40 seconds different that could mean the camera’s buffer gets full before the end plus nearly 100 shots to look through to find the few on which the ISS may be visible. More shots of differing type are visible here: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ejwwest/sets/72157623878835436/

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